Theory of Power

This begins by performing techniques against pads held by other students or the instructor, and progresses to breaking focus boards (plastic, slot-together affairs). Ultimately, you will have the opportunity to break wood, tile, block and brick targets, which looks really good when performing in front of an audience (such as school fetes, which you will be given the opportunity to attend). Breaking requires application of the ‘Theory of Power’. It is this theory that makes Taekwon-Do the most capable martial art in the world when it comes to breaking. The Theory of Power can be remembered using the mnemonic ‘CREMBS’:

Using the correct attacking tool focused on the correct target, maximising the force applied according to the equation:

Force = Mass / Area

For example:
The appropriate target for Forefist (Ap Joomok) may be the philtrum (under the nose)

Reaction Force ensures the body is kept in equilibrium by countering techniques using the opposing limb (such as the opposite fist in a punch). This is consistent with Newton’s Third Law: every action must have an equal and opposite reaction
For example:
If you thrust your fist forwards, your body must lean backwards slightly (according to Newton’s Third Law) as reaction. In order to apply full force to the technique, the opposite hand must be brought back to counter this loss of forward momentum

Equilibrium is keeping the body balanced, so that the student can apply full force in a technique whilst maintaining body position and stance
For example:
If you are off-balance, you are unable to apply your mass in the technique, and you will use energy to remain on your feet

Mass is used with the force of gravity, to enhance power at the point of impact. The body weight is used to its full potential in the timing of the technique
For example:
Sine Wave Motion is used to make most efficient use of gravity, but keeping muscles relaxed and fast moving,
and ensuring the body’s mass drops at the point of impact

Breath Control is using breathing muscles to relax the body between techniques, and contract the abdomen on impact, maximising power
For example:
On performing exercise, we breathe out to maximise the efficiency of our muscles by expelling air from our lungs.
Breathing out also prepares the body for impact, and reduces the risk of being winded

Speed is used according to the law of Kinetic Energy:

Kinetic Energy = ½ Mass x Speed²

or, to put it another way:

Force = Mass x Acceleration

Example 1:
By doubling the speed of a technique, the Energy in the technique increases by 4 (2²=4).
If the person is twice the size, but performs the technique at the same speed, the Energy only increases by 2
A student cannot increase his or her mass, but that mass can be accelerated both by using gravity (Sine Wave), and by applying an increase in speed, both of which combine to produce far greater Force

Example 2:
Compare a car hitting you at 30mph (which you would likely survive), to a bullet hitting you at 600 miles per hour (which would likely kill you, even though it only weighs a few grams)

Speed is a far more important factor than mass when producing power in a technique